My quick take ... and you may get many ...
In an ideal world you have 3 center fielders, and you put them wherever you want. In the real but still-near ideal world, you pick the best all-around guy for CF, and then you pick one guy with a CF arm but not quite the speed to play the position, and let him play RF, for the reason of the throw to 3B you mention. You take the other guy who has the speed to play center but lacks the arm, and put him in left, again with the throw to 3B in mind. ("Arm" includes both the strength and the accuracy, and perhaps when forced to choose, you choose the latter as the better arm.)
In even less ideal situations, such as a plodding no-arm guy, it might not really matter which corner you stick him in, and will depend on the strengths of your other corner candidate.
I think RF gets about as many total chances as LF.
There are no absolutes. Michael Cuddyer is deaf in his left ear, so he played RF, the better to hear his partner in center. We had the fairly recent experience of watching rag-armed Ben Revere do OK in RF for a time, because Josh Willingham was signed with RF in mind and then during Spring Training it was learned he wanted to stay in left, and the team went with the veteran's wishes. Life is what happens to you while you're busy making other plans.
I would note that we also were subjected to R. Grossman in RF, yet another situation where the guy with the arm (Rosario) was left in place. And Willingham in LF because of 'veteran deference'? Sort of like Dozier leading off. Putting players in positions they prefer vs positions that help you win is one of the reasons you are no longer managing a MLB team. And rightfully so.